The belief that our lives are determined by outside agencies, rather than the result of individual free will or personal choice.

Commentary: Determinism has always been important to Diamond’s approach. In his earlier work he tended to emphasize it in terms of the material factors determining a person’s health (and his life more generally), eg, family environment, society, culture, body chemistry, and genetics. Beginning in the 1990s, however, this concept was expanded to include a metaphysical and spiritual dimension, relating it to such concepts as the Tao, Tariki*, and Spirit Guidance* etc.

See also: EnTao’ed*; Guidance*; Karmic Plan*; Tariki*